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Refractive Surgery in Turkey: Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism

Myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism are common refractive errors that affect the clarity of vision.

These vision conditions occur when light entering the eye does not focus correctly on the retina, leading to blurred or distorted vision. Fortunately, various treatment options are available to correct these refractive errors and restore clear vision. In this article, we will delve into the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism to help individuals understand and address these vision problems.

Myopia Antalya

Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Myopia, commonly known as nearsightedness, is a vision condition where distant objects appear blurry while close-up objects can be seen clearly. It occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Symptoms of Myopia:

  • Blurred vision when looking at distant objects.
  • Difficulty reading road signs or the board in a classroom.
  • Squinting to see distant objects clearly.

Treatment Options for Myopia:

  1. Prescription Glasses: The most common and straightforward treatment for myopia is wearing prescription glasses with concave (minus) lenses. These lenses help shift the focal point of light to the retina.
  2. Contact Lenses: Myopic individuals can also opt for contact lenses, which offer clear vision without the need for eyeglasses.
  3. Refractive Surgery: For those seeking a more permanent solution, refractive surgeries like LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) can reshape the cornea to correct myopia.

Hyperopia (Farsightedness)

Hyperopia, or farsightedness, is a vision condition where distant objects can be seen more clearly than nearby objects. It occurs when the eyeball is too short or the cornea has too little curvature, causing light to focus behind the retina instead of directly on it.

Symptoms of Hyperopia:

  • Blurred vision when looking at close-up objects.
  • Difficulty with tasks like reading, using a computer, or sewing.
  • Eyestrain and headaches when performing close work.

Treatment Options for Hyperopia:

  1. Prescription Glasses: Farsighted individuals benefit from wearing prescription glasses with convex (plus) lenses. These lenses help move the focal point of light forward onto the retina.
  2. Contact Lenses: Contact lenses are another option for correcting hyperopia, providing clear near vision without the need for glasses.
  3. Refractive Surgery: Refractive surgeries like LASIK can also be used to reshape the cornea and correct hyperopia, allowing individuals to reduce their dependence on glasses or contact lenses.


Astigmatism is a vision condition that occurs when the cornea or the lens of the eye has an irregular shape, resulting in distorted or blurred vision. It can occur in conjunction with myopia or hyperopia. In astigmatism, the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina, causing both close-up and distant objects to appear distorted.

Symptoms of Astigmatism:

  • Blurred or distorted vision at all distances.
  • Difficulty reading fine print or seeing details clearly.
  • Eyestrain and discomfort, especially after extended periods of reading or computer use.

Treatment Options for Astigmatism:

  1. Prescription Glasses: Corrective lenses, such as glasses, are the most common treatment for astigmatism. Special cylindrical lenses called toric lenses are prescribed to compensate for the irregular shape of the cornea or lens.
  2. Torque Contact Lenses: Soft contact lenses with a toric design can also correct astigmatism. These lenses are weighted to align with the eye's axis, providing clear and stable vision.
  3. Refractive Surgery: LASIK and other refractive surgeries can be used to reshape the cornea and correct astigmatism. Some patients with astigmatism may opt for this surgical solution to reduce or eliminate their dependence on corrective lenses.

Combining Treatments for Comprehensive Correction

In many cases, individuals may have a combination of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. These refractive errors can coexist, and the treatment approach may involve combining the methods mentioned above to achieve comprehensive vision correction.

Multifocal Lenses: Multifocal glasses or contact lenses are designed to address both near and far vision. They are suitable for individuals with presbyopia, which commonly occurs with age and affects the eye's ability to focus on close objects.

Customized LASIK: Some refractive surgery centers offer customized LASIK procedures that can correct multiple vision issues simultaneously, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. These procedures are tailored to each patient's unique vision requirements.

Prescription Adjustments: Regular eye exams are essential to monitor vision changes and adjust prescriptions as needed. Over time, the prescription strength for myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism may change, necessitating updated corrective lenses or surgical adjustments.

Restoring Clear Vision

Myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism are common refractive errors that can significantly impact one's quality of life. Fortunately, a wide range of treatment options is available to correct these vision conditions and restore clear vision. Whether it's through prescription glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery, individuals can find a suitable solution to address their unique vision needs. Regular eye examinations and consultations with an optometrist or ophthalmologist are crucial for determining the most effective treatment plan and ensuring optimal visual health. With the right approach, individuals can enjoy improved vision and a better quality of life.